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My group had chosen the most ten frequent words which is shown on the table above.
1) Black
In this context, the word “black” is an adjective.The frequency of the word ‘black’ is 4 hits which were found in paragraph 5, 20 and 31. For example , the phrases “This note was a promise that all man, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” interprets at this point in history, black people were given to same basic right as white people, so this was an attempt to make those words in the Declaration of Independence true: he wanted ALL men to be equal. Also the example of another phrase is “…one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers” shows that King hoped that one day, even in the most racist state of Alabama, whites and blacks could be equal.

2) Down
From the table above, the word class of the word “down” is verb and the frequency of the word “down” has reached 4 hits. The word “down” was found in paragraph 2, 10, 16 and 20. One of the examples is “I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for the history freedom in the history of our nation”. The meaning of the word “down” in this phrase is the event that has happened will be memorable and it will go down to posterity.

3) Hundred
The word “hundred” in this context belong to the noun classes and it has 4 hits of frequency which can be found in paragraph 4 and 9. For example, the example is “But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we’ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.” indicates one hundred years later as one century later.

4) Struggle
The table shows the word “struggle” is in adjective class. The frequency of the word “struggle” has reached 2 hits and it was found in paragraph 9 and 23. In paragraph 9, the phrase “We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline.” refers to the Negro will strive to achieve or attain dignity and discipline in the face of difficulty or resistance.

5) Suffering
For the word “suffering”, it is belong to the noun classes. The frequency of the word “suffering” in paragraph 11 is two hits. The example of phrase is “You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.” The word “suffering” means the dark time they have been through.

6) Hope
The word “hope” in this context is in the noun classes. From the table above, the word “hope” has reached 4 hits and it was found in the paragraph 3, 7 and 23. In paragraph 5, the phrase “ This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” shows what the king is basically saying is a chance of hope for the millions of Negros.

7) Believe
In this context, the word “believe” is in an adjective. The frequency of the words “believe” is two hits which were found in paragraph 6. One of the examples of the phrase is “But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.” In this context, the word “believe” means African American have confidence in the truth that the government will bring something to the nation.

8) Together
The word “together” is placed in the adjective classes. The word “together” has reached 7 hits in paragraph 16, 22, and 23. The examples of phrase that I choose to analyze is “With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.” The word “together” in this sentence reflects the King says that, as long as people believe in the movement, they truly can come together as one equal nation through some beautiful imagery.

9) Long
The table shows the word class of the word “long” is adjective. In paragraph 3, the frequency of the word ‘long’ is 6 hits. Firstly, the phrase “It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.” indicates the long night is a time. Moreover, the phrase “We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one.” shows a conjunction which means during the time.

10) Free
Last but not least, the word class of the word “free” is adjective. The frequency of the word ‘free’ is 4 hits which were found in paragraph 4, 23, 31 and 32. The example of the phrase is “But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free.” shows the King hopes that one day, everyone can rejoice in their freedom, just as blacks did when they were originally freed from slavery.

I Have A Dream – Martin Luther King Jr.

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I Have A Dream – Martin Luther King Jr.
As pronounced to the march on Washington, DC, 28 August 1963.

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we’ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.” But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we’ve come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.

We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.We cannot walk alone.

And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. *We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by a sign stating: “For Whites Only.”* We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until “justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.”

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest — quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.

Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.

I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow,

I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of “interposition” and “nullification” — one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.”

This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

And this will be the day — this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning:My country ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride. From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado!

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California!

But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!

Concordance Exercise

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In Concordance Exercise, my group members and I were assigned to determine the frequency, identify the manner and analyze the meaning of the phrases “Now is the time” in the speech made by Martin Luther King Jr in the year 1963 in Washington which entitled ‘I have a dream’. We were instructed to watch the video while reading the script given by Dr Zulkifli.

i) Frequency

From the script, I had indicated that there are 4 hits for the phrase “Now is the time” which is in the paragraph 6 by using Concordance of Antconc 3.3.4w software. To give the audience vivid images of what he is talking about, King uses metaphors that contrast the racial situation in the country in the past and present to the situation in the future. Metaphors allow King to associate his speech concepts with concrete images and emotions.

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ii) Manner

In paragraph 6, “Now is the time” is repeated in four successive sentences, and is one of the most often cited examples of anaphora in modern rhetoric. It emphasis through repetition makes these phrases more memorable, and, by extension, make King’s story more memorable.
Reference link: Speech Analysis: I Have a Dream – Martin Luther King Jr.
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iii) Meaning

People had certainly pushed for equality before in history, but the politicians & leaders always disregarded these requests, saying that it will happen later. King urges the leaders to take it upon themselves to make the change happen, and not to put it off.
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In his speech, he states the following sentences :

1.0 Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy.

This phrase indicates inaction is compared to a luxury that civil rights workers must not purchase. From the source Study Guide for Martin Luther King Jr’s “I Have a Dream” Speech</ Democracy can be defined as "a political government either carried out directly by the people or by means of elected representatives of the people" (Wikipedia.com). It is derived from a Greek term meaning "power to the people". In his speech, King demands a right to power for all the people, especially those who have been discriminated against.
Reference link: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day: “Now is the Time”

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1.1 Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.

In this phrase, King calls on his fellow African-Americans to rise from the valley to the sunlit path (higher up the mountain). To contrast segregation with racial justice, King evokes the contrasting metaphors of dark and desolate valley (of segregation) and sunlit path (of racial justice.)
Reference link: ’I Have a Dream’ holds 5 lessons for speechwriters

The phrase associated with containment and compliance includes the following: manacles (of segregation); chains (of discrimination) and even tranquilizing drug (of gradualism). These tenors, naturally, bespeak of the black historical experience—of physical slavery and subjugation; yet they also serve to reflect the ongoing cultural and social imprisonment of persecution and racial bigotry.

In the times of Martin Luther King, Jr., the colored people and white people were segregated, meaning they were treated unequally. African Americans had to sit in a certain section of the bus. They had to drink from separate drinking fountains. These were dark and desolate times for African Americans, but King brought hope and light to their lives.
Reference link: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day: “Now is the Time”

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1.2 Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

According to What Martin Luther King, Jr. has meant to my life,from the phrase, the lift the nation from the quicksands interprets (down in the valley) to the solid rock (higher up).This shows that Dr. King was a truly committed and patient leader for his people. He led them on a path toward racial justice in America in a very peaceful and noble manner. He was strong and relentless in his efforts and had such enormous, lasting impact on our society today.

From the source A Few Rhetorical and Stylistic Devices in the I Have a Dream-Speech
Martin Luther King Jr. uses a metaphor in his speech by comparing the way America needs to rid itself of racial injustice to raising a stone from quicksand to solid rock. Racial injustice is the quicksand that will bury the stone that represents our nation. By bringing the stone onto the solid rock, representing brotherhood, it no longer is in danger of sinking in the quicksand. Since then, segregation has ended for the most part. We have come a long way since the times of Martin Luther King, Jr. However, we still have work to do when it comes to racial discrimination.

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1.3 Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children.

In fact, his allusions to historical documents were probably geared more towards the white listeners than towards the African Americans. It provided textual evidence of equality guaranteed but not granted. He wishes to create a “brotherhood” among Americans of all races. King is not speaking to just African Americans, but to the country as displayed in his statements.
Reference link: I Have a Dream

Moreover, this past of speech indicates we are all God’s children. The skin color we are born with makes up part of who we are. Yet, we were all created equally and justice belongs to us all. And now is the time for us all to make a difference.

In 1964, Martin Luther King, Jr. became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968 at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis after delivering his “I’ve been to the Mountaintop” address. Despite his death at the young age of 39, his legacy lives on.
Reference link: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day: “Now is the Time”

In conclusion, King understood human nature. He understood the natural human tendency to relax once things are going well. He urges his followers not to relax. The fight is not over (anyone who’s played high school sports has probably heard something similar from a coach). The situation is urgent and to delay is death.The four sentences together start with the same phrase “Now is the time…” to make the listeners realize the urgent need to change the reality. The listeners have the sense of being driven to the edge by a kind of growing power—-they must take action at once!He emphasizes the need for change immediately. It is noticeable that each time Dr King repeats the phrase “Now is the time”, the applause and cheers from the crowd get louder, the repetition creating a crescendo of enthusiastic agreement.

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What is AntConc ?

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

AntConc is a UNICODE compliant freeware concordance program for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux systems developed by Laurence Anthony of Waseda University, Japan. AntConc can generate KWIC concordance lines and concordance distribution plots. It also has tools to analyze word clusters (lexical bundles), n-grams, collocates, word frequencies, and keywords.

Concordance can mean:

Concordance (publishing), a list of words used in a body of work, with their immediate contexts
Concordance (genetics), the presence of the same trait in both members of a pair of twins (or set of individuals)
Concordance (medicine), involvement of patients in decision-making to improve patient compliance with medical advice
Agreement (linguistics), a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase.
Concordance system, in Swiss politics, the presence of all major parties in the Federal Council
Concordance database, tailored to legal applications, distributed by LexisNexis
Lambda-CDM model of big-bang cosmology
Link concordance, a relation between mathematical links in knot theory
Inter-rater reliability, in statistics, the degree to which multiple measurements of the same thing are similar
Concordance correlation coefficient, in statistics, a measurement of the agreement between two variables
Concordance (Concordancia), the conservative alliance in power in Argentina between 1931 and 1943.